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Science Says PMS Solved With Steak

Science Says PMS Solved With Steak


Earlier this week, a study published by The American Journal of Epidemiology revealed that women with higher levels of iron were less likely to suffer from premenstrual symptoms – a shocking and new revelation for women everywhere.

Or is it?

The study, which was conducted by the University of Massachusetts, is telling us that a woman full of iron is less likely to avoid the bloating, cramps, and, well, let’s just say crankiness that they may experience during menstrual cycles. Reports of the study are even going as far as to say that women should “break out the red meat,” because higher iron intake means no PMS. Yet some remain unmoved.

“[Telling women to eat red meat] is too much of a general recommendation,” says Mayling Kajiya, founder of Girl UnInterrupted, an amino acid supplement specifically designed to treat women’s woes. According to Kajiya, the study is not mistaken, but it’s telling us things we’ve already known for ages. Women have been recommended to take a lot of iron because of their susceptibility to anemia, and in general, iron will help your body process anything better, so yeah, of course it’s great for menstruation.

Conversely, the study also found that women with higher levels of potassium were more likely to suffer from PMS – another fact that was none too surprising for Kajiya.

“Potassium is high in salt and so it gets in the way of other minerals making their way into your body,” she says, noting that it promotes bloating and swelling that many women suffer from.

For all of you meat-lovers out there who were excited to start chowing down in the name of health, don’t be discouraged.

“The most important thing to remember is having a healthy and balanced diet,” says Kajiya, “and if you’re going to eat a lot of red meat for your iron intake, go organic and make sure it’s grass fed.”

Oh and, don’t forget the chocolate.

Anne Dolce is the Cook Editor at The Daily Meal. Follow her on Twitter @anniecdolce


Easy 3-Ingredient Recipes You'll Wish You Knew Sooner

We've all been there: it's been a long day, we're home already, and we just want something tasty without the work, effort, or the need to run to the store for some ingredients. Don't worry! We've got you covered.

Whether you're looking for something sweet to satisfy some late-night cravings or something different (but still easy) to complete dinner, we've got exactly what you're looking for. And yes, every one of the recipes we're going to talk about here takes just three ingredients.

Even better? We're not even talking about strange or trendy ingredients you'll have to go out of your way to get, and most of the time, you'll find you have everything you need right in your kitchen cupboard or pantry. That's the furthest you'll need to walk to get everything you need, and there's absolutely no need to trade your slippers for shoes or your PJs for outside clothes. Total win, right?


Can your period make you feel like you have the flu?

Well, you don&rsquot actually have the influenza virus, but your body is mimicking similar symptoms. "My feeling from a medical standpoint is that this is all part of PMS syndrome, which can have both physical and emotional symptoms," Dr. Dweck says. Some of her clients' most common PMS complaints are all reminiscent of flu symptoms, including irritability, breast soreness, headaches, joint pain, and excessive fatigue.

Dr. Dweck also points out that often times women with pre-existing conditions, like autoimmune issues or rheumatoid arthritis, will even experience exacerbation or a flare-up of their symptoms just before their period&mdashand then things get better after they menstruate. "So it does make you wonder, [even though] it's not in the literature, if there&rsquos some sort of immune hit that occurs just before your period bringing these flu-like symptoms to life," Dr. Dweck notes.

There are no studies that show your immune system is actually taking a hit. So you can just blame the hormonal rollercoaster that is PMS until there's more conclusive science on this.


What causes PMS?

Experts believe PMS is triggered (in part) by cyclical changes in sex hormones each month. And while it is true that our sex hormones naturally shift in a cyclical pattern each month, problems crop up only when our hormones are out of balance — when, for example, we have too much estrogen in our bodies relative to progesterone (a condition known as estrogen dominance ), or when we have too little progesterone overall.

In other words, monthly hormone shifts are normal and expected. They happen! But they are not the root cause of the problem. The root cause of the problem is when we have more or less estrogen and progesterone than we need. As our bodies move through the 28-day hormone cycle in this hormonally imbalanced environment, that is when we experience symptoms.

If you address the underlying hormone imbalance with food and lifestyle, you can erase the symptoms of PMS. You will still be cycling through the four phases of your menstrual cycle — as you should be! — but without all the symptoms you experienced before.

Experts also believe that nutrient deficiencies play a role in PMS symptoms. Research has shown a connection between low levels of vitamin D, calcium, and magnesium and PMS symptoms. Studies also suggest that supplementing with magnesium and vitamin B6 can make a significant difference in the severity of PMS.


Cold case: Family wants answers to teen’s murder

BELLWOOD, BLAIR COUNTY, Pa. (WTAJ) — It’s been 42 years since a local high school football player went missing after a big Friday night game. The community was shocked when his body was discovered and his death ruled a homicide. The killer or killers of Nicholas Grassmyer have never been caught.

“I still come down. I still plant flowers every year,” says Nick’s father Bob, as he stands at the gravestone at Logan Valley Cemetery in Bellwood.

Looking at the marker Bob says, “We picked it out because he liked sports. He played football. In fact, he played football the last night he lived, and he played baseball.”

Nick was only 16, a junior at the Bellwood Antis Area High School . That night he played halfback in a victorious game against Tyrone, Then, he went to visit his girlfriend, calling his parents a little after midnight, saying he’d walk a short distance to their home..

But the next morning, Bob says, “I woke up about 5 o’clock and the wife was sitting at the table and I asked her what was the matter and she said Nick hadn’t come home yet. “

After learning Nick wasn’t at his girlfriend’s house they headed down route 865, out of Bellwood and toward route 220, the path Nick would have walked. They found no sign of him and called police who joined their search.

“We couldn’t find him and I called some of my relatives, nieces, nephews, and brothers, and we all started looking for him. He wasn’t the type that would run away or go away without telling,” Bob remembers.

The football team, the fire company and the entire community came to help, but they still couldn’t find nick.

“I think it was Sunday, there was some joggers jogging up Janesville Pike up near the reservoir above Tyrone and they saw him laying down over the bank and they called police,” Bob says.

Nick’s body was found off route 859 out of Bellwood, about six miles from his home. His cousin identified him, but that wasn’t good enough for Bob who insisted on going to the scene.

Bob’s son, Bob, Nick’s half-brother was there when his dad returned home.

“I remember when he came back he told my stepmother in the house and I was outside and all I could hear was her screaming and I can still hear that,” the younger Bob says.

An autopsy determined that Nick died of a fractured skull and the coroner ruled the death a homicide. Bob 39 at the time, expected the case to be solved quickly. Now he’s 81, and still looking for answers.

“I’m still surprised. It’s been a long time, not knowing who, why, where, what for,” he says.

His wife, Nick’s mother Mary Anne, died of cancer at the age of 54 in 1994.

Bob says, “I had her in the house in a hospital bed and she laid there all day long and looked up at the wall where his picture was.”

Always missing Nick and never knowing what happened to him.

Bob hasn’t given up hope that he’ll find out before he dies, saying, “I think there’s somebody out there, still alive, that might know something, yes.”

Copyright 2021 Nexstar Media Inc. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed.


First, here’s what we mean by healthy-fat foods.

It can be dicey to divide foods into discrete categories of “healthy” or “unhealthy.” Our tendency to label foods this way is a practice supported by diet culture as much as (or more than) science, and generally speaking, all foods can have a place in a varied, balanced diet. Also, like many topics in nutrition, the research into the effects of the various types of fats on our health is evolving, and sometimes a source of disagreement among experts. That said, the phrase healthy fats is generally used to refer to unsaturated fats. There are two types—here’s a quick rundown on each one:

Monounsaturated fats: “These are among the healthiest of all fats,” Dana Hunnes, Ph.D., M.P.H., R.D., senior dietitian at UCLA Medical Center and adjunct assistant professor at the Fielding School of Public Health, tells SELF. Monounsaturated fats help develop and maintain your cells, and can help lower your LDL cholesterol levels, reducing your risk of heart disease and stroke, according to the U.S. National Library of Medicine. They can be found in foods like olive oil, nuts, and avocados, according to the Mayo Clinic.

Polyunsaturated fats: The two main types of polyunsaturated fats are omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, essential fats that our bodies cannot make on their own but need for many essential functions, the American Heart Association (AHA) explains. Omega-3 fatty acids, especially, are beneficial for heart health, including reducing blood pressure and decreasing cholesterol and triglyceride levels, according to the U.S. National Library of Medicine. Omega-3s are mostly found in foods like fish, nuts, and seeds. “Other polyunsaturated fats [omega-6s] can be found in certain plant-based oils,” Hunnes adds.


The New Frontier

But there are a number of ways he&rsquos exploited koji&rsquos transformational enzymes that could be useful&mdashand legal&mdashboth in a restaurant and at home. Shio koji (which can be purchased online or made at home, is basically koji inoculated on rice, or koji rice, plus a salt solution) and amazake (a sweeter combination of koji rice and water) both work as marinades and ingredients. Umansky uses amazake as an accelerated sourdough starter, and he&rsquos created an airy bread of 50 percent rye flour, far lighter than the dense, heavy bread that would usually result from such grain. He had me taste chicken thighs side by side, one plain and one marinated for a few hours in a koji solution the koji one had a deep burnt-caramel skin, softer, juicier flesh, and a faint hint of a pleasant cheesy funk.

Cortney Burns, co-chef of Bar Tartine in San Francisco, marinates nearly all protein at the restaurant in shio koji, including her roast chicken. She became fascinated with koji about five years ago. &ldquoI knew it was the basis for umami,&rdquo she said, and so she and her co-chef, Nick Balla, began making koji, miso, and amazake in-house, &ldquoas a way to understand it better.&rdquo In addition to marinating meat, she&rsquos used shio koji as a flavoring element in vegetable dishes for both the saline and umami notes. She&rsquos dehydrated it to use as a salty-sweet condiment. Burns has pureed koji rice and used it as a sweetener in ice cream. &ldquoIt&rsquos like cheating!&rdquo she says, of how versatile koji products are and the complex flavors they impart.

Koji&rsquos sweetness appealed to Kevin Fink, chef and owner of Austin&rsquos Emmer and Rye. During his sojourn at the Nordic Food Lab in Denmark, he tried inoculating koji on a pork head terrine the koji survived but didn&rsquot particularly flourish. Since then, at his own restaurant, he&rsquos experimented further, growing koji on a variety of grains and then turning those koji grains into griddle cakes. Fink, named one of Food and Wine&rsquos Best New Chefs in 2016, served a dessert at the Food and Wine Classic festival in Aspen made of Sonoran wheat koji cake, cultured and baked into a cookie, as an ice cream sandwich.

&ldquoThe koji allowed us to create a conduit of flavor that was much more floral than the other components we could get in Texas,&rdquo Fink said. &ldquoThe development of flavors you can get from it are unbelievable. It&rsquos almost champagne-y up front.&rdquo

Fink, who’d already been growing koji at his restaurant, learned the dehydrator trick from Umansky to grow koji in greater quantities. That solved one problem. And koji had already solved another problem for Fink. In making pasta, he had a huge amount of leftover egg whites. So he’d turned for help to Jason White, chef, forager, and fermentation expert, who’d helped Fink set up his foraging and fermentation larder.

White had long been fascinated with koji, with its flexibility and with the diversity of products it helps produce. And, as it turned out, he’d already considered how koji could transform the vast quantities of egg whites that most restaurant kitchens produce. The proteins available in egg whites seemed to him to be “dying to interact with koji.” White realized with soy that koji breaks proteins down into flavorful amino acids that produce the characteristic umami flavor. He thought the same technique should work with high-protein egg whites as well.

White tweaked the process. To make soy sauce, koji is grown on a mash of wheat, soy, and salt, with water added later in the process, at which point other microbes colonize and ferment the brew. The resulting amino-rich liquid is strained out. To ferment egg whites, White inoculated wheat, and then incorporated the koji wheat into an egg white–brine mixture. The proteases in the koji wheat break down the proteins in egg whites, freeing them up for a secondary fermentation over three months, similar to the six-month process used to make soy sauce.

The end result: a white amino sauce, similar to soy sauce and with the exact same consistency, but with, White says, a nutty, warm, sweet koji aroma. White thinks the sauce is “superamazing,” and Fink agrees—he considers it a brilliant invention. Fink since used the egg white–koji sauce to dress meat and in marinades and vinaigrettes. White has also created a bread-based amino sauce, inspired by a report he read about an all-female microbiology program in Japan in the 1940s, where the microbiologists inoculated bread crusts with Aspergillus and mixed them into a brine solution to ferment.

Umansky, who recently went down to visit Fink in Austin, loves when koji enthusiasts share tips and ideas. At a recent Larder preopening pop-up, Umansky served diners modern versions of Jewish deli favorites, many of which incorporated koji: shio koji–cured lake trout, an updated version of gravlax, as well as amazake-cured pickles, and koji mixed directly into bread dough. The koji carrots fascinated me. They had the preserved crunch of a pickle, but lacking the overpowering flavors of either salt or vinegar, they tasted more purely of carrots than any pickle I’d eaten.

Personally, I’ve cured New England ocean perch at home in shio koji for a few hours before briefly cooking it. The result was astounding shio koji transformed a tasty but mild fish into something resembling the pricey miso black cod found at Japanese restaurants.

Umansky has dreams for koji. He imagines it could be used to turn cheaper or unused cuts of meat into inexpensive jerky. He’d love to get his hands on raw cacao and coffee beans—before they’re dried and cured—and use koji to cure them. “I get the feeling we’re going to get flavor compounds that we don’t see through traditional methods,” he said. Like nearly all cooks new to koji, he’s become an impassioned, even obsessed, fan, and he expects others will soon catch on. “I really feel like koji, or maybe shio koji, will become as ubiquitous as miso and soy sauce in American kitchens.”

The small group of chefs and home cooks who’ve been experimenting with koji see possibilities spooling out ahead of them. There are experiments to try, dishes to invent, people to teach about how to use koji in their kitchens. This tiny microbe has already conquered Asia. It might finally be time for it to conquer the West as well.

Back to the Test Kitchen


Why You Have Food Cravings On Your Period

There's a reason why you can't stop thinking about sweets.

Ever feel like certain cravings hit when you're on your period&mdashand not at other times? Are those PMS pangs for Snicker bars or big bowls of pasta (pick your carby poison) really different from a craving you might experience any other time of the month?

According to Justine Roth, R.D., certified dietician nutritionist, the answer is yes. &ldquoDuring your period, your body is going through physiological changes,&rdquo she says. &ldquoYour hormones are out of whack, causing you to crave certain nutrients.&rdquo

Suzanne Fenske, M.D., assistant professor of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive Science at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, says there's a line of thinking that endogenous opioid peptides, or EOPs, amino acid bonds that are always present in your body, could be to blame. During certain times&mdashlike your period (and pregnancy)&mdashthere are more active EOPs. "We're not 100 percent certain," she says. "But the theory is that with the presence of these EOPs, you have more cravings."

So don't be surprised if you're itching for more snack-like foods or a bite (or two or three) of chocolate when you're on your period. Fenske says the most common cravings during menstruation are definitely salty foods like potato chips or chocolate.

Related: 7 Sneaky Signs Your Blood Sugar Is Too High

In fact, a study in PLOS ONE estimates that almost 50 percent of women in the United States crave chocolate at the onset of menstruation. Although the researchers suggested that there might have cultural implications&mdashwomen from foreign countries wanted chocolate during menstruation significantly less than first- and second-generation Americans&mdashthere are also physical explanations for the craving: Roth notes that chocolate, specifically cocoa, is high in magnesium, which your body typically runs low on when you&rsquore premenstrual. (Just make sure you&rsquore going for dark chocolate versus milk chocolate, which doesn&rsquot have the nutrients that will appropriately curb your craving, she says.)

Learn how to knock out fast food cravings:

Related: 𔁳 Signs You Might Have A Scary Vitamin B12 Deficiency

Cravings during your period are harmless&mdashmost of the time, says Fenske. The only time there should be cause for concern is if you start craving very strange things, like specifically wanting ice chips or being really eager for the taste of dirt (it can happen!).

"There are certain cravings women can have on their periods that are not quite normal and are more related to anemia," she says. "If you're craving things out of your wheelhouse, see your doctor to confirm you don't have an underlying cause for the craving."

As far as what to you do when you&rsquore mid-craving? Don't fight it.

&ldquoIf you&rsquore craving something like that, you should listen to it,&rdquo Roth says. &ldquoOtherwise it&rsquos just going to get louder.&rdquo

Related: ​What Your Period Blood Consistency Means About Your Health

You&rsquove heard it before, and you&rsquoll hear it again, but Roth says: &ldquoIt&rsquos all about moderation.&rdquo


A Juicy History of Steak-Umm

Eugene Gagliardi, patriarch of the Gagliardi meatpacking business, raised the 22-ounce frozen log of beef byproducts that would shortly become known as Steak-umm and sent it careening into his son’s ankle.

“Nobody is ever going to buy this sh*t!” he screamed, storming off.

"My dad was not supportive," Gene Gagliardi, whose Achilles tendon had been targeted, tells Mental Floss. "I decided to work on it at night."

The elder Gagliardi was not a man given to flights of fancy in the meat business, and now was not the time to try his patience with an experiment. It was the mid-1960s and his company was floundering, having lost some valuable accounts in recent months. What the younger Gagliardi had perceived to be a possible solution was, to his father, a joke. To Gene, it seemed like nothing could be done to please his father—not even his idea to revolutionize the frozen beef business by collecting scraps of unwanted meat and pressing it into a loaf.

The younger Gagliardi would eventually sell Steak-umm to Heinz for $20 million. He was one of the few who saw the potential for thinly-sliced steaks and refused to abandon the idea, even as his ankle throbbed.

Steak-umm Meats via YouTube

When Gagliardi was 6 years old, his father seated him on a pear crate, put a knife in his hand, and told him to start cutting. Chopping beef and poultry was the family business, and the Gagliardi clan—Eugene and his three sons, with Gene the middle child—were prominent meat merchants in the West Philadelphia area of Pennsylvania. There was no time to waste.

In the 1950s, the Gagliardis found success selling portion-controlled meat cuts long before commercial food manufacturers started peddling smaller serving sizes for dieters. They also curated premium slabs of beef and sold them to high-end clientele. When the fast food chains like Burger King and McDonald’s began to proliferate, the Gagliardis earned their business, too.

But by the 1960s, the laundry list of accounts had begun to dry up. Cheaper suppliers were becoming more abundant, and the personalized touch of Gagliardi Brothers was becoming less of a buying influence. With business slowing down, Gene Gagliardi would stay up late at night and think about how to bring his family’s finances back from the brink. That way, maybe his father would allow him to pursue his dream of being a park ranger in Montana.

One of those nights, the then-30-year-old identified a problem with the well-known Philly-style cheesesteaks. The chewy steak cuts were tough to handle for both children and senior citizens, and posed a bit of a choking risk across the board. Gagliardi thought a tender source of the beef would broaden the appeal of the cheesesteak and open it up to a larger market.

"It was tough cow meat back then," he says. "You had to be real careful about feeding it to kids because the meat would drag out of the sandwich. I thought, well, if you can homogenize milk, you should be able to homogenize meat."

Gagliardi thought he could soften up the meat by running it repeatedly through a meat grinder. "I did that about five times, extracting the protein out, and it became a solid mass. I couldn't slice it, so I froze it and then put it back in the fridge for four days to temperate it, then sliced it." Gagliardi had created a tender meat product that could be sold frozen and virtually eliminated the choking hazards of conventional Philly cheesesteaks.

(In a 2012 federal court ruling, a judge would articulate exactly what Gagliardi had done. "[The Steak-umm was] from chopped and formed emulsified meat product that is comprised of beef trimmings left over after an animal is slaughtered and all of the primary cuts, such as tenderloin, filet, and rib eye, are removed,” Judge Lawrence Stengel wrote. “The emulsified meat is pressed into a loaf and sliced, frozen, and packaged.")

Because the beef was so flat, it took only 30 seconds to cook each side. Gagliardi tasted it, found it delicious, and thought he’d solved his family’s problems.

His father was not a fan. After berating his son for even contemplating the idea, he begrudgingly allowed him to peddle it to supermarkets. Gagliardi offered to sell it below cost so stores would carry it. Marketed under the Gagliardi's frozen brand of Table Treats, the frozen meat slices debuted in 1969.

"We actually sold it to school lunch programs," Gagliardi says. "Kids ate it, loved it, then went home and asked for it."

Its eye-raising origins aside, shoppers seemed to embrace the product. It was quick to make—some college students even cooked the slices by wrapping them in foil and ironing them—tasty, and easy to chew. The company even distributed it with frozen rolls for a complete Philly cheesesteak experience. By 1975, Gagliardi was distributing them under the name Steak-umm after a friend suggested it during a quail hunting expedition. By 1980, he says, it was the best-selling frozen meat product in retailer freezers: "Competitors would try to pay off inspectors to find out how we did it."

While the Steak-umm name was trademarked, Gagliardi was unsuccessful in obtaining a patent for the process used to make them. He blamed confusion in filing the papers. "My brother was Mr. Thrifty and went to an attorney who had never filed for a patent before," he says.

Whatever the case, Steak-umm knock-offs became pervasive. When Heinz approached the brothers in 1980 with an offer of $20 million for the rights, it was an easy decision.

The marketing muscle of Heinz further endeared the Steak-umm brand to consumers. Heinz (via their Ore-Ida division) owned Steak-umm through 1994 before selling it back to Gagliardi and his newest venture, Designer Foods. All along, the butcher had been treating his kitchen like a lab, finding new ways to trim meats to maximize profitability for distributors. He wound up patenting several novel methods, including what would become KFC’s Popcorn Chicken in 1992.

Steak-umm changed hands once more in 2006, when Quaker Maid Meats purchased the company. In 2008, they entered into lengthy litigation with Steak ‘Em Up, a Philadelphia-based eatery that Quaker alleged was guilty of consumer confusion. A 2012 federal ruling was in favor of the defendant, who serves authentic Philly cheesesteaks and “thought it was a joke” that anyone could confuse them for the frozen alternative.

At 86, Gagliardi still toils at the butcher’s block, working on food innovation for his company, Creativators. Despite his numerous contributions to food service, he still feels slighted by his father, who passed away in 1991 and apparently never acknowledged his son’s success.


(Exercise-1)

The nearest star to the planet earth is:
(a) Venus
(b) Sun
(c) Moon
(d) Alpha
Answer: b

Orion is a name of a ________.
(a) Star planet
(b) Planet
(c) Galaxy
(d) Constellation
Answer: d

The largest planet of the solar system:
(a) Mars
(b) Sun
(c) Jupiter
(d) Saturn
Answer: c

A body revolving around another body is called as:
(a) Orion
(b) Stars
(c) Sun
(d) Satellite
Answer: d

Name the comet which appears after every 76 years:
(a) Hallet’s
(b) Meteor
(c) Halley’s
(d) Pole star
Answer: c

See Also: General Science & Ability CSS Paper 2019

He was the first scientist to prove that plants move around the sun: (CSS 2013)
(a) Archimedes
(b) John Kepler
(c) Galileo Galilei
(d) None of these
Answer: b

Distances of stars are expressed in:
(a) km
(b) Square meter
(c) Light year
(d) Meters
Answer: c

The star appears to be stationary from the Earth:
(a) Pole star
(b) Sirius
(c) Orion
(d) Ursa Major
Answer: a

The bright star like objects with a long tail approaching the Sun in a highly elliptical orbit is called:
(a) Celestial bodies
(b) Meteor
(c) Comets
(d) Stars
Answer: c

The un-burnt piece of meteor which reaches the surface of the earth:
(a) Celestial bodies
(b) Meteorites
(c) Comets
(d) Stars
Answer: b

Meteors are commonly known as:
(a) Comets
(b) Stars
(c) Asteroids
(d) Shooting stars
Answer: d

How long does our earth takes to turn about it axis (CSS 2012)
(a) One hour
(b) 24 hours
(c) 23 hour
(d) None of these
Answer: b

The motion of the earth around the Sun is called:
(a) Change of season
(b) Revolution
(c) Rotation
(d) Orbits
Answer: b

The planet also known as morning star is ————
(a) Mars
(b) Mercury
(c) Jupiter
(d) Venus 11
Answer: d

One light year is equal to:
(a) 18X106 km
(b) 40.67X1012 km
(c) 9.46X1012 km
(d) 150,000,000 km
Answer: c

Read also: GK Paper-I EVERYDAY SCIENCE (CSS Paper 2007) | CSS Past Papers Complete

Jupiter has a thick atmosphere of _______ which reflects most of the sun light falling on it.
(a) Oxygen
(b) Helium
(c) Nitrogen
(d) Hydrogen
Answer: d

A unit of length equal to the average distance between the earth and sun is called (CSS 2011)
(a) Astronomical unit
(b) Light year
(c) Parsec
(d) Parallax
(e) None of these
Answer: a

Solar eclipse occurs on _________.
(a) full moon day
(b) new moon day
(c) both ‘a’ and ‘b’
(d) none of the above
Answer: b

Stars produce heat energy and light due to the fusion of___________.
(a) Oxygen
(b) Hydrogen
(c) Helium
(d) Ozone
Answer: b

Stars appear to move from______ in the sky.
(a) West to east
(b) East to west
(c) North to south
(d) South to north
Answer: b

Ursa Major moves around the ______.
(a) Sun
(b) Earth
(c) Moon
(d) Pole Star
Answer: d

A body can escape the gravitational pull of the earth if it is thrown up with a velocity of: (CSS 2010)
(a) 25 miles per sec
(b ) 60 miles per sec
(c) 10 miles per sec
(d) 7 miles per sec
(e) None of these
Answer: c

Name the planet which is least dense among all the planets.
(a) Mercury
(b) Mars
(c) Saturn
(d) Jupiter
Answer: c

The axis of the Earth is inclined to its orbital plane at an angle of:
(a) 23.5°
(b) 66.5°
(c) 25.3°
(d) 65.5°
Answer: b

Our earth as well as the sun belongs to the galaxy which has a spiral shape called the
(a) Milky Way
(b) Galaxy
(c) Light Year
(d) Universe
Answer: a